Papers, articles and publications

RH Marine continues to share knowledge by contributing to publications, papers and seminars. The domain knowledge gained by RH Marine can be applied by other companies to improve safety and sustainability in the maritime sector.

This domain knowledge has been and can be used to improve maritime design principles and specify rules and regulations.

The full reports are available for download on the websites or are available upon request at your contact person at RH Marine. 

Optimizing the performance of a diesel generator-battery hybrid power plant with energy management including a flywheel

Publisher: ASRANet

Published in: International Conference on Smart & Green Technology for Shipping and Maritime Industries 2019

In a continuously developing marine electrical world, the demands on fuel consumption and greenhouse gases reduction are becoming stricter. More vessels are exploring the options in using alternative energy sources – batteries, flywheels etc. – to improve their operation. For systems with more than one energy source, an energy management system (EMS) becomes a vital component. In addition marine power sources are dynamic by definition and require additional precautions to be controlled.

The task of an EMS is to optimize the operation based on a specific goal or goals, having as a primary goal the minimisation of fuel consumption, and as a result the exhaust pollution reduction. Implementing an EMS in a hybrid ferry, including diesel generators and batteries has led to a considerable reduction of fuel consumption, of even up to 38%.

Two Sided Earthing Versus one Sided Earthing for Ethernet Cables

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE 2019

The discussion about the earthing method of Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables never stops. There is a difference in opinion between Local Area Network (LAN) equipment manufacturers and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) specialists. LAN equipment manufacturers state that the cable screen should only be earthed on one side of the cable, because it can prevent a ground current loop.

EMC specialists advise multi-point earthing, since it is the best way to increase immunity to different kinds of disturbances. To find out which earthing method gives better results, a few measurements are performed. Three kinds of test methods are used: a direct current injection (50 Hz) test, an electric fast transient bursts (EFT-B) test with a capacitive clamp and a continuous wave (CW) test using an Electromagnetic (EM) clamp.

Cost-effective electromagnetic compatible installation on ships using a risk based approach

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE 2017

The lack of equipment available on the market which is certified for maritime, or even naval, environments, i.e. in accordance with IEC 60533 [1], makes it hard for shipbuilders to deliver (naval) ships that comply with maritime ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) regulation. Following the conventional rule-based approach, i.e. implementing standards, results in a deadlock or very costly dedicated hardening of equipment.

This problem is acknowledged in the Lloyd's Register Naval Rules and obviated by a risk based electromagnetic compatibility approach. This paper points out the electromagnetic risks identified and mitigated by the technical committee that wrote the IEC 60533, and provides a risk based approach to deal with them.

Risk based EMC for complex systems

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI GASS) 2017

The rule-based approach, i.e. following electromagnetic interference standards, is the basic methodology assumed to result in electromagnetic compatible systems operating properly in their intended environment. For complex systems we need a smarter approach, based on assessing and controlling the electromagnetic risks. This risk-based approach is described, and applied to naval ships.

An interference risk–based approach for naval vessels

Publisher: Cotecmar Colombia

Published in: Ship Science and Technology 2017

Modifying civil technology into military hardened products is time consuming, involves high costs, and results in military equipment that is quite expensive and often outdated. This is due to a rule based approach that adheres to strict military or maritime EMC standards.

There is, however, a cost-effective solution which is now implemented in the Lloyd’s Register Naval rules: a risk-based approach. With this approach the stakeholders can benefit from COTS equipment and take advantage of its flexibility and allowance for rapid technological change, avoid obsolescence and manage life-cycle costs. The paper discusses the steps that are needed to apply an interference risk-based approach on the integration of non-military equipment on a naval vessel from an EMC point of view. It focusses on the responsibilities of all involved parties to deliver a state of the art ship that can be easily fitted with latest technologies to keep the installation in pace with the technology of any adversary and for a reasonable price.

Analysis of Limit Setting Rationales for Protection of Maritime VHF Radio

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility ( Volume: PP, Issue: 99 )

IEC 60533 is a product standard that puts strict requirements on all equipment on board of ships. Except for dedicated bridge equipment, there are hardly any products available that comply. One aspect from this standard is the low emission limit for radio frequency protection of the maritime very high frequency radio telephony system. This limit appears not to be based on a minimum range to receive a distress call, but on the possibility of receiving the lowest possible signal in an assumed placement of equipment.

An analysis of the standard and a reconstruction of their rationale have led to an alternative, functional requirement with proper rationale, which can give the system integrator more flexibility in choosing equipment. This novel risk-based approach results in the same objective, i.e., an interference-free environment. Measurements have been performed to demonstrate possible disturbance sources and to investigate the communication range.

Protection Against Common Mode Currents on Cables Exposed to HIRF or NEMP

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2016 (Volume:58, Issue: 4)

Above deck, cables on naval ships are exposed to high-intensity radiated fields and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) that may cause conducted interference and generate electromagnetic fields that exceed the immunity levels of commercially available equipment above and below deck. Exposed cables, such as open power plugs or lighting cables, are modeled and characterized both as a monopole antenna perpendicular to the deck and as a transmission line, representing a cable close to the deck. The placement of an illuminated cable close to the deck is a good protection measure for long cables at low frequencies, which includes NEMP protection. The coupled pulse from a high-intensity NEMP illumination is not expected to cause damage on electric installations. It is shown that for exposed cable length of maximum 25 cm and not placed in the line of sight of transmitters above 400 MHz, no additional protection measures are needed.

EMC and electrical safety on board ships, How EMI filters undermine the protection against electric shock

Publisher: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Published in: Proc. of the 2013 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Europe 2013), Brugge, Belgium

This paper investigates the safety consequences of the use of EMI filters on board ships. Ship's power supply systems differ from their land-based counterparts but there are no special “EMI filters for ship-board use” on the market. The paper shows that the level of protection against electric shock is severely undermined when normal EMI filters are applied on board ships.


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